pH in Textile Dye Baths


Dyes have been used on textiles for over 6,000 years, originating in the time of the Neolithic period. Textile dyes are a core aspect of the textile industry for their ability to enhance the aesthetic appeal of fabrics. Dyes are traditionally derived from animal or plant products, although synthetically produced dyes have become popular to increase the variety of colors and resilience of the dyes. Often, dyes require a mordant; a mordant is a substance, typically an inorganic oxide, which  fixes the dye to the textile. A mordant may also be used help to retain the
intensity of dyes through repeated washes.

Moisture in Antibiotic Ointment


Topical medications are remedial, drug-containing substances that are generally applied to surfaces of the body. Topical medications come in a variety of forms which include creams, lotions, gels, patches, and ointments. Ointments, specifically, are highly viscous medications that are prepared from materials such as paraffin wax, beeswax, or vegetable oils. Most ointments contain very little water, making them ideal for moisturizing and protecting the affected area. Bacitracin zinc is an antibiotic that is commonly incorporated into ointments. This drug is used for preventing infections in minor skin injuries when applied topically.

Measurement of Conductivity in Yogurt


The regular consumption of dairy products provides numerous health benefits, such as strengthening bone health, encouraging proper digestion, and reducing the risk of certain infections. Yogurt is one of the most popular types of dairy products consumed worldwide. Depending on the desired fat content of the finished product, yogurt is produced with milk, cream, or powdered milk products.

Monitoring Water Softener Effectiveness




Natural water properties and composition vary geographically depending on factors such as geology and climate. One of these properties is water hardness. Water hardness is the concentration of dissolved minerals in water. Hardness is primarily caused by calcium and magnesium, but iron, silica, and other metals can also contribute. Some areas of the world have natural, mineral rich hard water, while others have water very low in mineral concentrations, or soft water. Scaling and build-up are adverse effects due to the high mineral content of hard water, costing homeowners money in maintenance and care of their appliances. Homes that have hard water experience discoloration in toilets and showers, decreased water pressure, decreased water heater efficiency, and lower soap effectiveness in cleaning dishes and clothes.